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School of Mathematics, The King's Buildings, The University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3FD; telephone: +44 (0) 131 650 5060, e-mail:






Recent publications


Wilson,A. Aitken,C.G.G., Sleeman,R. and Carter,J. The evaluation of evidence relating to traces of cocaine on banknotes. Forensic Science International, 236, 67-76;




Wilson,A. Aitken,C.G.G., Sleeman,R. and Carter,J. The evaluation of evidence for autocorrelated data in relation to traces of cocaine on banknotes. Applied Statistics, 64, 275-298; .




Taroni,F., Bozza,S., Biedermann,A. and Aitken,C.G.G. Dismissal of the illusion of uncertainty in the assessment of a likelihood ratio. Law, Probability and Risk, 15, 1-16; and rejoinder: 31-34. and




Biedermann,A., Taroni,F., Bozza,S. and Aitken,C.G.G. Reframing the debate: a question of probability, not of likelihood ratio. Science and Justice, 56, 392-396.




Biedermann,A., Bozza,S., Taroni,F. and Aitken, C.G.G. The consequences of understanding expert probability reporting as a decision. Science and Justice, 57, 80-85.




Aitken,C.G.G., Wilson,A., Sleeman,R., Morgan,B., Huish,J. Distribution of cocaine on banknotes in general circulation in England and Wales. Forensic Science International, 270, 261-266.




Aitken,C.G.G.and Huang,C. Evidence evaluation for hierarchical, longitudinal, binary data using a distance measure. Statistica Applicata - Italian Journal of Applied Statistics, 27, 213-223.




Biedermann,,A., Bozza,S., Taroni,F. and Aitken,C.G.G. The meaning of justified subjectivism and its role in the reconciliation of recent disagreements over forensic probabilism. Science and Justice, 57, 477-483.




McDermott,Y. and Aitken,C.G.G. Analysis of evidence in international criminal trials using Bayesian belief networks. Law, Probability and Risk, 16, 111-129.




Aitken,C.G.G. and Nordgaard,A. Letter to the Editor – The roles of participants’ differing background information in the evaluation of evidence. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 63, 648-649. doi: 10.1111/1556-4029.13712





Publication list

Practitioner Guide 1: Fundamentals

Practitioner Guide 2: Assessing the probative value of DNA evidence

Practitioner Guide 3: The Logic of Forensic Proof: Inferential Reasoning in Criminal Evidence and Forensic Science.

Practitioner Guide 4: Case assessment and interpretation.

Royal Statistical Society section on statistics and the law and website.

Law, Probability and Risk journal