Contents

- 1 What is the term given to a variable that influences the dependent or outcome variable but was not separated from the independent variable?
- 2 Which variable is the one that the researcher manipulates?
- 3 Which of the following best defines the relationship between confounding dependent and independent variables?
- 4 What is the decision making process for evaluating claims about a population?
- 5 How do you manipulate independent variables?
- 6 What kind of variable has values determined by chance?
- 7 How do you manipulate variables?
- 8 What variables Cannot be manipulated?
- 9 What makes good internal validity?
- 10 What is the relationship between confounding dependent and independent variables?
- 11 How do you identify a confounding variable?
- 12 Are control variables confounders?
- 13 What is the process of decision making to evaluate claim about the population based on the characteristics of a sample purportedly coming from that population?
- 14 Is a process in making decisions in evaluating a claim about the population based on the characteristics of a sample from the same population?
- 15 What is the probability of committing a Type I error?

## What is the term given to a variable that influences the dependent or outcome variable but was not separated from the independent variable?

confounding variable. A variable that influences the outcome but cannot be separated from the other variables that influence the outcome variable. convenience sample. a sample of subjects used because they are convenient and available. continuous variable.

## Which variable is the one that the researcher manipulates?

The independent variable is one that the researchers either manipulate (such as the amount of something) or that already exists but is not dependent upon other variables (such as the age of the participants).

## Which of the following best defines the relationship between confounding dependent and independent variables?

Which of the following best defines the relationship between confounding, dependent, and independent variables? The confounding variable influences the dependent variable, but is not separated from the independent variable. In a true experimental study, the subjects should be assigned to groups randomly.

## What is the decision making process for evaluating claims about a population?

Cards

Term Statistics | Definition The science of conducting studies to collect, organize, summarize, analyze, and draw conclusions from data. |
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Term Hypothesis Testing | Definition A decision – making process used for evaluating claims about a population based on information obtained from samples. |

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## How do you manipulate independent variables?

Again, to manipulate an independent variable means to change its level systematically so that different groups of participants are exposed to different levels of that variable, or the same group of participants is exposed to different levels at different times.

## What kind of variable has values determined by chance?

A random variable is a variable whose values are determined by chance. A random variable is a function that associates a real number with each element in the sample space.

## How do you manipulate variables?

A manipulated variable is the independent variable in an experiment. It’s called “ manipulated ” because it’s the one you can change. In other words, you can decide ahead of time to increase it or decrease it. In an experiment you should only have one manipulated variable at a time.

## What variables Cannot be manipulated?

In many factorial designs, one of the independent variables is a nonmanipulated independent variable. The researcher measures it but does not manipulate it. The study by Schnall and colleagues is a good example.

## What makes good internal validity?

Internal validity is the extent to which a study establishes a trustworthy cause-and-effect relationship between a treatment and an outcome. The less chance there is for “confounding” in a study, the higher the internal validity and the more confident we can be in the findings.

## What is the relationship between confounding dependent and independent variables?

A confounding variable is closely related to both the independent and dependent variables in a study. An independent variable represents the supposed cause, while the dependent variable is the supposed effect. A confounding variable is a third variable that influences both the independent and dependent variables.

## How do you identify a confounding variable?

Identifying Confounding A simple, direct way to determine whether a given risk factor caused confounding is to compare the estimated measure of association before and after adjusting for confounding. In other words, compute the measure of association both before and after adjusting for a potential confounding factor.

## Are control variables confounders?

As exercise 3 illustrated, if the original relationship between the independent and dependent variable vanishes when the possible confounding variable is controlled for, then you should conclude that the control variable really is a confounding variable and that the original relationship was a spurious one.

## What is the process of decision making to evaluate claim about the population based on the characteristics of a sample purportedly coming from that population?

Term Hypothesis TestingDefinition A decision – making process used for evaluating claims about a population based on information obtained from samples.

## Is a process in making decisions in evaluating a claim about the population based on the characteristics of a sample from the same population?

Test Statistic or Statistical Hypothesis is a decision – making process for evaluating claims about a population.

## What is the probability of committing a Type I error?

The probability of making a type I error is α, which is the level of significance you set for your hypothesis test. An α of 0.05 indicates that you are willing to accept a 5% chance that you are wrong when you reject the null hypothesis. The probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is false is equal to 1–β.