Environmental sustainability is an area of concern for the transportation of goods. Negative environmental effects in logistics may arise from issues concerning such things as noise and safety, but this review will concentrate on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions that result from logistic activities.
The models that are used to estimate the GHG emissions for road vehicles will be presented and compared to show the inputs that are needed and the outputs they provide.
Various approaches that use these models to plan vehicle routes will be compared, particularly considering whether time-independent or time-dependent models are used and whether the speed of the vehicles is regarded as fixed or variable within the models.
The scale of reduction in GHG emissions that is achievable through the adoption of vehicle routing systems will be examined and compared to the effect on GHG emissions from other factors such as the type and capacity of the vehicles used and the opportunities for backhauls and collaboration.
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